top of page

Grupo Nova Be Gym

Público·151 membros
Edward Ivanov
Edward Ivanov

The Ultimate Guide to Protocolos Medicina Materno Fetal.pdf: A Comprehensive Resource for Pregnant Women and Health Professionals



Protocolos Medicina Materno Fetal.pdf: A Guide for Pregnant Women and Health Professionals




Introduction




Pregnancy is a wonderful and exciting time in a woman's life. But it can also be a time of uncertainty and anxiety, especially if there are any problems or complications with the mother or the baby. That's why it's important to have access to the best possible care and support during this period.




Protocolos Medicina Materno Fetal.pdf



That's where Materno Fetal Medicine comes in. Materno Fetal Medicine is a branch of obstetrics that focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of conditions that affect the mother, the fetus, or both. It involves a team of specialists who work together to provide comprehensive and personalized care for pregnant women and their babies.


In this article, we will explain what Materno Fetal Medicine is, what are its benefits, and what are the main protocols that it follows. We will also provide some examples of how Materno Fetal Medicine can help you have a healthy and happy pregnancy.


Protocol 1: Prenatal Diagnosis and Screening




What is prenatal diagnosis and screening?




Prenatal diagnosis and screening are tests that are done during pregnancy to check for any abnormalities or diseases in the fetus. They can help detect genetic disorders, chromosomal abnormalities, structural defects, infections, or other conditions that may affect the baby's health or development.


What are the methods of prenatal diagnosis and screening?




There are different methods of prenatal diagnosis and screening, depending on the purpose, timing, accuracy, and invasiveness of the test. Some of the most common methods are:


Ultrasound




Ultrasound is a safe and painless procedure that uses sound waves to create images of the fetus inside the womb. It can be done at any stage of pregnancy, but it is usually done between 18 and 22 weeks to assess the baby's growth, anatomy, position, movement, heartbeat, and amniotic fluid level. It can also detect some major anomalies such as spina bifida, cleft lip or palate, heart defects, or kidney problems.


Blood tests




Blood tests are simple and non-invasive tests that analyze a sample of blood from the mother. They can be done as early as 10 weeks of pregnancy to measure certain hormones or proteins that indicate the risk of having a baby with Down syndrome, trisomy 18, trisomy 13, or neural tube defects. They can also detect some infections such as rubella, toxoplasmosis, syphilis, hepatitis B, or HIV.


Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling




Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS) are invasive procedures that involve taking a sample of fluid or tissue from around or inside the fetus. They can be done between 10 and 20 weeks of pregnancy to analyze the baby's chromosomes or DNA for genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, hemophilia, or Tay-Sachs disease. They can also detect some infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), parvovirus B19 (fifth disease), or listeria.


What are the indications and risks of prenatal diagnosis and screening?




Prenatal diagnosis and screening are not mandatory tests. They are offered to pregnant women who have certain risk factors or preferences that make them more likely to have a baby with a condition that may affect their health or quality of life. Some of these risk factors include:



  • Advanced maternal age (35 years or older)



  • Family history or previous child with a genetic disorder or birth defect



  • Abnormal ultrasound findings



  • Abnormal blood test results



  • Exposure to harmful substances or infections during pregnancy



  • Personal choice or ethical reasons



Prenatal diagnosis and screening have different benefits and limitations depending on the method used. Some of these benefits include:



  • Providing reassurance or peace of mind



  • Preparing for the birth or care of a baby with special needs



  • Making informed decisions about continuing or terminating the pregnancy



  • Seeking early treatment or intervention for some conditions



  • Reducing the risk of complications during delivery or after birth



Some of these limitations include:



  • Not being able to detect all possible conditions or anomalies



  • Having false positive or false negative results



  • Causing anxiety or stress



  • Harming the mother or the baby (especially with invasive procedures)



  • Raising ethical or moral dilemmas



Prenatal diagnosis and screening should be discussed with your doctor or genetic counselor before deciding whether to undergo them or not. They should respect your wishes and values and provide you with accurate information and support throughout the process.


Protocol 2: Fetal Therapy and Surgery




What is fetal therapy and surgery?




Fetal therapy and surgery are interventions that are done during pregnancy to treat certain conditions that affect the fetus. They aim to improve the outcome or survival of the baby before or after birth.


What are the types of fetal therapy and surgery?




There are different types of fetal therapy and surgery depending on the purpose, timing, technique, and invasiveness of the intervention. Some of the most common types are:Fetal blood transfusionFetal blood transfusion is a procedure that involves giving blood to the fetus through a needle inserted into the umbilical cord. It can be done between 18 and 34 weeks of pregnancy to treat severe anemia caused by Rh incompatibility, parvovirus infection, or other conditions.Fetal shunt placementFetal shunt placement is a procedure that involves inserting a tube into the fetus to drain excess fluid from an organ or cavity. It can be done between 20 and 32 weeks of pregnancy to treat conditions such as hydrocephalus, pleural effusion, or bladder outlet obstruction.Fetal laser ablationFetal laser ablation is a procedure that involves using a laser beam to seal off abnormal blood vessels in the placenta. It can be done between 16 and 26 weeks of pregnancy to treat twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), a condition where one twin receives too much blood while the other receives too little.Fetal surgery for spina bifida and other defectsFetal surgery for spina bifida and other defects is a procedure that involves opening the uterus repairing or closing a defect in the fetus. It can be done between 19 and 26 weeks of pregnancy to treat conditions such as spina bifida, a condition where the spinal cord is exposed or protruding from the back, or congenital diaphragmatic hernia, a condition where the diaphragm is not fully formed and allows the abdominal organs to enter the chest cavity.


What are the indications and risks of fetal therapy and surgery?




Fetal therapy and surgery are not routine procedures. They are only offered to pregnant women who have a fetus with a condition that is life-threatening or severely disabling and that cannot be treated after birth or with other less invasive methods. Some of these conditions include:



  • Severe anemia or hydrops fetalis



  • Severe TTTS or selective intrauterine growth restriction



  • Severe hydrocephalus or ventriculomegaly



  • Spina bifida or myelomeningocele



  • Congenital diaphragmatic hernia or pulmonary hypoplasia



  • Congenital heart defects or arrhythmias



  • Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation or bronchopulmonary sequestration



  • Sacrococcygeal teratoma or other tumors



Fetal therapy and surgery have different benefits and limitations depending on the type of intervention. Some of these benefits include:



  • Improving the chances of survival or quality of life of the baby



  • Reducing the need for intensive care or surgery after birth



  • Preventing further damage or complications to the fetus or the mother



  • Providing hope and comfort to the parents



Some of these limitations include:



  • Not being able to cure all possible conditions or anomalies



  • Having uncertain outcomes or long-term effects



  • Causing harm or complications to the fetus or the mother (especially with open surgery)



  • Risking preterm labor or delivery



  • Raising ethical or moral dilemmas



Fetal therapy and surgery should be discussed with your doctor or fetal medicine specialist before deciding whether to undergo them or not. They should respect your wishes and values and provide you with accurate information and support throughout the process.


Protocol 3: High-Risk Pregnancy Management




What is a high-risk pregnancy?




A high-risk pregnancy is a pregnancy that has a higher chance of having complications that may affect the health or well-being of the mother, the baby, or both. It requires more frequent and specialized care and monitoring than a normal pregnancy.


What are the causes and complications of a high-risk pregnancy?




A high-risk pregnancy can be caused by various factors that can be present before, during, or after pregnancy. Some of these factors include:


Maternal conditions (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, infections)




Maternal conditions are medical problems that affect the mother's health and may also affect the baby's development. They can be pre-existing (such as diabetes, hypertension, thyroid disorders, autoimmune diseases, etc.) or gestational (such as gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, cholestasis, etc.). They can cause complications such as miscarriage, preterm labor, fetal growth restriction, congenital anomalies, stillbirth, neonatal morbidity or mortality, etc.


Fetal conditions (e.g., growth restriction, anomalies, multiple gestation)




Fetal conditions are medical problems that affect the baby's health and development. They can be genetic (such as Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, etc.), chromosomal (such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, etc.), structural (such as spina bifida, cleft lip/palate, heart defects, etc.), infectious (such as CMV, rubella, toxoplasmosis, etc.), or multifactorial (such as intrauterine growth restriction, fetal distress, etc.). They can cause complications such as miscarriage, preterm labor, fetal demise, neonatal morbidity or mortality, etc.Placental conditions (e.g., previa, abruption, accreta)Placental conditions are medical problems that affect the placenta, the organ that connects the mother and the baby and provides nourishment and oxygen to the fetus. They can be caused by abnormal implantation, attachment, or separation of the placenta. They include placenta previa (where the placenta covers the cervix), placental abruption (where the placenta detaches from the uterine wall), and placenta accreta (where the placenta invades into the uterine wall). They can cause complications such as bleeding, preterm labor, fetal distress, hysterectomy, maternal morbidity or mortality, etc.How is a high-risk pregnancy managed?A high-risk pregnancy is managed by a team of health professionals who have expertise in maternal-fetal medicine, obstetrics, gynecology, genetics, pediatrics, neonatology, anesthesia, radiology, and other specialties. They provide comprehensive and personalized care for the mother and the baby throughout the pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum period. Some of the aspects of high-risk pregnancy management include:Antenatal care and monitoringAntenatal care and monitoring are essential for detecting and preventing any problems or complications that may arise during pregnancy. They involve regular visits to the doctor or clinic, blood tests, urine tests, ultrasound scans, non-stress tests, biophysical profiles, doppler studies, amniotic fluid analysis, and other tests as needed. They also involve taking medications, supplements, or injections as prescribed, following a healthy diet and lifestyle, avoiding smoking, alcohol, or drugs, and managing any chronic conditions.Delivery planning and timingDelivery planning and timing are important for ensuring a safe and smooth delivery for both the mother and the baby. They involve choosing a suitable place and mode of delivery (such as hospital vs home birth, vaginal vs cesarean section), preparing for possible emergencies or interventions (such as induction of labor, forceps delivery, episiotomy, blood transfusion, etc.), and deciding on the optimal time of delivery (such as term vs preterm, elective vs emergency, etc.). They also involve discussing pain relief options, birth preferences, cord clamping, skin-to-skin contact, breastfeeding, etc.Postnatal care and follow-upPostnatal care and follow-up are essential for promoting recovery and well-being for both the mother and the baby after delivery. They involve checking vital signs, wound healing, bleeding, infection, milk production, contraception, mental health, etc. for the mother; and checking weight, height, head circumference, temperature, heart rate, respiration rate, jaundice, feeding, development, etc. for the baby. They also involve providing support, education, counseling, referrals, vaccinations, screenings, or treatments as needed.ConclusionPregnancy is a unique and complex process that involves many changes and challenges for both the mother and the baby. Sometimes these changes and challenges can lead to problems or complications that require special care and attention. That's why Materno Fetal Medicine exists: to provide the best possible care and support for pregnant women and their babies who have any condition that may affect their health or well-being.In this article we have explained what Materno Fetal Medicine is, what are its benefits, and what are the main protocols that it follows. We have also provided some examples of how Materno Fetal Medicine can help you have a healthy and happy pregnancy. We hope you have found this article informative and useful. If you have any questions or concerns about your pregnancy or your baby's health or development please consult your doctor or fetal medicine specialist. They will be able to advise you on what tests or treatments or interventions are appropriate for your situation. Remember: you are not alone in this journey. You have a team of professionals who are here to help you and your baby.Frequently Asked QuestionsWhat is Materno Fetal Medicine?Materno Fetal Medicine is a branch of obstetrics that focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of conditions that affect the mother, the fetus, or both.What are some examples of conditions that Materno Fetal Medicine can diagnose Some examples of conditions that Materno Fetal Medicine can diagnose or treat are:



  • Genetic disorders (such as cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, hemophilia, etc.)



  • Chromosomal abnormalities (such as Down syndrome, trisomy 18, trisomy 13, etc.)



  • Structural defects (such as spina bifida, cleft lip/palate, heart defects, etc.)



  • Infections (such as CMV, rubella, toxoplasmosis, etc.)



  • Anemia or hydrops fetalis



  • Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome or selective intrauterine growth restriction



  • Hydrocephalus or ventriculomegaly



  • Congenital diaphragmatic hernia or pulmonary hypoplasia



  • Congenital heart defects or arrhythmias



  • Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation or bronchopulmonary sequestration



  • Sacrococcygeal teratoma or other tumors



  • Diabetes, hypertension, preeclampsia, cholestasis, or other maternal conditions



  • Intrauterine growth restriction, fetal distress, or other fetal conditions



  • Placenta previa, placental abruption, placenta accreta, or other placental conditions



  • What are some examples of tests or procedures that Materno Fetal Medicine can perform?



Some examples of tests or procedures that Materno Fetal Medicine can perform are:



  • Ultrasound scans



  • Blood tests



  • Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling



  • Fetal blood transfusion



  • Fetal shunt placement



  • Fetal laser ablation



  • Fetal surgery for spina bifida and other defects



  • Non-stress tests



  • Biophysical profiles



  • Doppler studies



  • Amniotic fluid analysis



  • What are the benefits and limitations of Materno Fetal Medicine?



The benefits and limitations of Materno Fetal Medicine depend on the type of test or procedure performed. Some of the general benefits include:



  • Providing reassurance or peace of mind



  • Preparing for the birth or care of a baby with special needs



  • Making informed decisions about continuing or terminating the pregnancy



  • Seeking early treatment or intervention for some conditions



  • Reducing the risk of complications during delivery or after birth



Some of the general limitations include:



  • Not being able to detect all possible conditions or anomalies



  • Having false positive or false negative results



  • Causing anxiety or stress



  • Harming the mother or the baby (especially with invasive procedures)



  • Risking preterm labor or delivery



  • Raising ethical or moral dilemmas



Materno Fetal Medicine should be discussed with your doctor or fetal medicine specialist before deciding whether to undergo any test or procedure. They should respect your wishes and values and provide you with accurate information and support throughout the process.


  • How can I find a Materno Fetal Medicine specialist?



If you have a high-risk pregnancy or a fetus with a condition that may require Materno Fetal Medicine care, you can ask your doctor for a referral to a Materno Fetal Medicine specialist. You can also search online for Materno Fetal Medicine clinics or centers in your area. You can also contact your health insurance company to find out if they cover Materno Fetal Medicine services and which providers they work with.


  • Where can I get more information about Materno Fetal Medicine?



If you want to learn more about Materno Fetal Medicine, you can visit some of these websites:



  • The Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine: https://www.smfm.org/



  • The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists: https://www.acog.org/



  • The March of Dimes: https://www.marchofdimes.org/



  • The National Institutes of Health: https://www.nih.gov/



  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: https://www.cdc.gov/



You can also read some books or articles about Materno Fetal Medicine such as:



  • Clinical Protocols in Obstetrics and Gynecology by John E. Turrentine (2015)



  • Multifetal Pregnancy: A Handbook for Care of the Pregnant Patient by Eberhard Merz and Kurt Hecher (2009)Fetal Therapy: Scientific Basis and Critical Appraisal of Clinical Benefits by Mark D. Kilby, Anthony Johnson, and Dick Oepkes (2013)



  • Fetal Surgery: An Issue of Clinics in Perinatology by N. Scott Adzick and Alan W. Flake (2010)



  • High Risk Pregnancy: Management Options by David K. James, Philip J. Steer, Carl P. Weiner, and Bernard Gonik (2010)



You can also watch some videos or documentaries about Materno Fetal Medicine such as:



  • Twice Born: Stories from the Special Delivery Unit by PBS (2015)



  • The Surgery Ship by National Geographic (2015)



Extraordinary Pregnancie


Informações

Bem-vindo ao grupo! Você pode se conectar com outros membros...

membros

  • Be Gym
  • Cris Porper
    Cris Porper
  • Hendry Emma
    Hendry Emma
  • Burbon Burbonovich
    Burbon Burbonovich
  • Nikk
    Nikk
bottom of page